As hunting developed through history, the tribes in what is now known as the United States found many sources of hard rock that could be chipped into sharp edges that could be used for scrapers, axes and points for spears and arrows. Stones worked for tools formed hard edges and came from several areas.
My own experience has mostly been under tutelage from our friend spudtruckowner, who has garnered knowledge from participating over his lifetime, in research and archaeological digs in the area.
Theories have developed over many years of study about the origins, and identities of the users of the tools we find in all of the united states we now inhabit.
Emerging archaeological evidence (including Monte Verde in Chile and Mud Lake in Wisconsin—where butchered
mammoth remains predate the oldest verified Clovis site by
nearly 2,500 radiocarbon years) supports pre-Clovis human presence in the Americas.
Any doubts that the Clovis-First theory no longer reigns over Peopling of the Americas studies are dispelled by the final paragraph of Waters and Stafford’s article:
The archaeological data now show that Clovis does not
represent the earliest inhabitants of the Americas and that a
new model is needed to explain the peopling of the mericas.
His many years of study of atlatl – spears thrown with the use of a throwing base, have led one expert on the subject, Gary Fogelman, to form an extensive tool and biface collection – one showing which is featured above.
The flint and chert source that shows up in points in the NW PA area originated in a few different areas, in the immediate area usually colored green and dark greys. Their color makes points stand out when found in the local fields.
Some known here are the Towslowski biface, seen above, and jasper. Collections of the stone have been studied from their appearance in tools found locally, and traced back to the stone source used.
Folsom and Clovis points reveal technology the tribes had developed from long use and practice, and sources for them are attracting increased study.
Western tools and points appear in many collections, as pictured below in the Museum of the Red River in a drawer of atlatl weights.