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Saturday Archaeology: Digging the Mayans in Stages

12:46 am in Art by Ruth Calvo

Corner of post-classic pyramid being excavated, plaster floor has been revealed

Gargoyle uncovered at Copan

A first lesson in rediscovering the Mayan architecture that built their many impressive temples has been that each successive generation took a lesson from the past, literally, and covered the existing structure with another.   While digging at the Blue Creek, Belize, Maya Research Program dig, we were finding the later layers, recording the data we found, then going deeper to find the preceding structures.  To find a Mayan pyramid means that you have found the last, top, layer of the civilization that built it and under that structure there is another, earlier, one.

Tombs were often encased within or beneath Mayan structures. Frequently new temples were built over existing structures. The Mayans also expressed themselves artistically. Their ceramics were made in a large variety of forms and decorated with complex scenes. The Mayans also designed works of art from flint, bone and shell, along with making decorated cotton textiles. Even metal was used for ceremonial purposes. Items made with metal include necklaces, bracelets and headresses.

It is evident that all of the structures built by the ancient Mayans were built in honor of the gods. Compounds were built with large open areas, from which all the citizens could view the religious ceremonies taking place on the platforms elevated above the city.

IX’noha excavation uncovered this grave with some offerings under later layer constituting a bench

At Copan we can now view many generations of the past, with references to those earlier generations incorporated into each new building and commemorative work of art.

Archaeologists have excavated extensive tunnels under the Acropolis, revealing how the royal complex at the heart of Copán developed over the centuries and uncovering several hieroglyphic texts that date back to the Early Classic and verify details of the early dynastic rulers of the city who were recorded on Altar Q hundreds of years later. The deepest of these tunnels have revealed that the first monumental structures underlying the Acropolis date archaeologically to the early 5th century AD, when K’inich Yax K’uk’ Mo’ established the royal dynasty.[69] These early buildings were built of stone and adobe and were themselves built upon earlier earth and cobble structures dating to the predynastic period.[70] The two styles of building overlap somewhat, with some of the earthen structures being expanded during the first hundred years or so of the dynastic history of the city.[71] The early dynastic masonry buildings of the Acropolis included several with the Early Classic apron-molding style of Tikal and one built in the talud-tablero style associated with Teotihuacan, although at the time the talud-tablero form was in use at both Tikal and Kaminaljuyu as well as in Central Mexico.[71]

Below, the Hieroglyphic Staircase forms a major record of dynastic history as well as one of the outstanding artworks known from Mayan civilization.

Hieroglyphic staircase at Copan, history of the generations of rulers written out in hieroglyphs that form the longest written history in existing Mayan cultural discoveries.


Saturday Art: Mayan Excavation

6:02 am in Art by Ruth Calvo

Editor’s Note: Ruth Calvo is in Belize on an archaeology dig. Her initial post is here.

Mayan temples are the excavation we’re doing here in Blue Creek, Belize. The site is IZ’noha, and we’re finding structures from the post classical period which is not the finest architecture, but has the usual symmetry and form of the earlier periods and I’m going to put up a few pictures of the excavation we’re involved in, which emerges a little more each day.

These pictures are in order as the dig brings out new features as we progress.

My first day at the dig, the bottom edge as we look for stairs and courtyard structure.

A few feet further and deeper

Stairs start to come into view

We progress up toward the upper chambers, more stairs.

Completed temple, Mask Temple at Lamanai in Belize.

Saturday Art: Archaeological Dig in Belize

4:52 pm in Art by Ruth Calvo

Mayan pyramid in Blue Creek Central square, restored to pre-excavation condition

Cabanas used by archaeological site diggers

As many of you know, I’m in Belize, at Blue Creek, the Maya Research Group facility, digging for Mayan information, relics, structure, and of course anything we can find.

Several members of FDL have asked me to describe a dig.   This one is different from the one last year in Pennsylvania.   We’re in the tropics, hearing howler monkeys and spider monkeys that swing high overhead, surrounded by rainforest and digging small hills that contain the remnants of Mayan pyramids.

We are using picks, shovels, trowels, pans to hold dirt, buckets, and lots of bandanas for the constant sweat.   Actually, it’s hotter in TX but the humidity here can be oppressive.

We are directed by archaeological faculty who’ve been digging in this area and can see the evidence of structure underneath, and we uncover rocks as structure while looking for the symmetrical forms that Mayans build, also picking up shards of pottery and flakes, the evidence of cut tools such as scrapers and drills.

Below you can see the outline emerging of the base of the pyramid we’re excavating, stone by stone dug from the hillock that’s formed over it through the years since it was last used.   Estimates of the end of Mayan temples, the height of their civilization, estimate that the last occupation was in @ 1000 A.D.   The pyramid below has been out of use except for the possible occasional pilgrimage since then, a little over a thousand years.  What we unearth has lain here for about that amount of time.

What we unearth is saved for laboratory analysis, and over the years of research here large numbers of historic material is catalogued and much of it stored, as display space is limited.

When an excavation is complete, the structure is studied and photographed, and returned to its original form as much as possible.

Base of post classical period pyramid, where I’ve been digging for several days

Flake (showing cut edges) below common quartz rock, unearthed July 2

Saturday Art: France’s President Names Greatest Painter?

12:54 am in Art by Ruth Calvo


Soulages works at ArtParis06

(Picture courtesy of Arnaud at

The tension that pervades France’s government has caused President Hollande to declare a Greatest Painter in defense of his own world view. That artist paints almost entirely in black. Parallels with the divided U.S. government scream to be voiced.

Political commentary has followed the French president’s announcement, much of it bewildered about artistic choice.

I wonder how many of you have heard of the French artist Pierre Soulages?

Probably not a lot. I’ve lived here nearly 20 years and I was only vaguely aware of the man. Apparently, though, he’s the world’s greatest living painter.

We have that on the authority of none other than President Francois Hollande, who was recently down in the southern town of Rodez opening a new museum to display the master’s oeuvre.

One other rather important thing you need to know about Soulages, who incidentally is now in his mid-90s. He only ever paints in one colour. And that colour is… black.

Well, that’s not entirely true. At one point he did occasionally use some blue. But then he evidently decided that was a concession too many to chromatic convention. So since 1979 everything he has done has been in variations of sable, coal, pitch and jet – or as he calls it, ultrablack.

I think the idea is that if you look beyond the stripes and swirls of the all-consuming black you emerge in a new artistic world, and start seeing light, in the black.


Most people are going to look at the agglomerations of black streaks and striations, and frankly they’re going to have a laugh.

I am not saying they are right to laugh at the paintings. For all I know these are genuinely innovative, challenging ways of analysing modern reality.

What I am saying is that most people, the non-elite, aren’t going to get it. And it’s with most people – the voters – that Hollande and the rest of the Paris political elite have long since parted ways.

Black is dramatic, but probably not the way most of us see our best expressions appear. In a world full of rancor, it may be dominant. Looking at new perspectives has no harmful effects, though, and perhaps Hollande has added dimensions that are helpful in seeing how our politics affect our lives and those of others.

(Picture courtesy of Quentin Verwaerde at

Soulages painting at Soulages XXIème siècle, au musée des Beaux-arts de Lyon, hiver 2012.

Saturday Art: Charles Barsotti

1:52 am in Art by Ruth Calvo

Welcome to Summer, we are now officially over the solstice that begins our summer.

A 1996 UK Royal Mail stamp card with a cartoon by Charles Barsotti

(Picture courtesy of Mark Anderson.)

A distinguished member of The New Yorker cartoonist hall of fame, known for outstanding work in portraying our society, passed away this last week. Charles Barsotti drew remarkable humorous portrayals of our lives during his career from the 1960′s until last week, when his last cartoon was published.

He was a signature artist whose rounded, elegant, sparsely detailed style evoked both the traditional world of a James Thurber and the contemporary sensibility of a Roz Chast.

Barsotti’s work features a simple repertory including a nameless, lovable pooch and a monarch whose kingdom consists of a guard and a telephone.

He was originally from San Antonio, TX. The New Yorker published a commemorative collection of some of his cartoons when he died, noting “With the minimum number of lines, Charlie could extract the maximum number of ideas.”

The obviously more simple style of Barsotti contrasts with the previous cartoon artists I’ve featured here, Herblock and Mauldin. The content of his humor also is markedly different, the personal introspection rather than commentary on society, the national scene and politics. As with any artistic preferences, your feelings and mine are a matter of personal taste and I can only hope that you get enjoyment from each in some way.


(Picture courtesy of Mark Anderson.)

A 1996 UK Royal Mail stamp card with a cartoon by Charles Barsotti


A 1996 UK Royal Mail stamp card with a cartoon by Charles Barsotti

Saturday Art: Herblock

2:29 am in Art by Ruth Calvo



Herblock cartoon November 23, 1973: “Forward!”

(Pictures above and below, courtesy of Clif at

One of the leading editorial cartoonists of our times, Herb Block was sharply satirical in his comments on the political scene and had a great deal of influence on thought and beliefs.   His politics tended to be liberal, and he regularly drew Joe McCarthy and Richard Nixon – among others – in uncomplimentary fashion.

Herb Block started drawing at a precocious age, began taking classes at the Art Institute of Chicago when he was eleven. He adopted the “Herblock” signature in high school. After graduating in 1927, he attended Lake Forest College for almost two years. Block moved to Cleveland in 1933 to become the staff cartoonist for Newspaper Enterprise Association, a feature syndicate that distributed his cartoons nationally. He won his first Pulitzer Prize in 1942, then spent two years in the Army doing cartoons and press releases. Upon his discharge Block was hired as the chief editorial cartoonist for The Washington Post, working there until his death 55 years later.[1] His personal assistant for 44 years was Jean Rickard, who was Executive Director of The Herb Block Foundation for its first 10 years. He never married, and, in the Post’s employee index, he listed his address and place of residence as simply “The Washington Post“.

While in high school and then in college he began drawing some cartoons for the Evanston News-Index, mainly for the pleasure of being published. Toward the end of his second year at Lake Forest, he took some of these published cartoons and some unpublished ones to theChicago Daily News hoping to get a summer job. The editor who looked at them said they would get in touch if they had anything. A few days later they phoned and asked Block to come in. An editorial page cartoonist was leaving the city and they could give him a try. He started Monday and never went back to school.

When Herb Block died in October 2001, he left $50 million with instructions to create a foundation to support charitable and educational programs that help promote and sustain the causes he championed during his 72 years of cartooning. The Herb Block Foundation awarded its first grants and the annual Herblock Prize in editorial cartooning in 2004.[2] The Herb Block Foundation is committed to defending the basic freedoms guaranteed all Americans, combating all forms of discrimination and prejudice and improving the conditions of the poor and underprivileged through the creation or support of charitable and educational programs with the same goals. The Foundation is also committed to improving educational opportunities to deserving students through post-secondary education scholarships and to promoting editorial cartooning through continuing research.


He always insisted on total editorial independence, regardless of whether or not his cartoons agreed with the Post’s stance on political issues. He focused most of his attacks on those public figures in power, often on Republican figures, but Democrats who displeased him were not immune from criticism. As an example—despite being an ardent admirer of Franklin Roosevelt—he found it necessary to attack the president’s 1937 court-packing scheme.

During the 1950s, Herblock criticized Eisenhower mainly for insufficient action on civil rights and for not curbing the abuses of Senator McCarthy. In the following decade, he attacked the US war effort in Vietnam, causing President Johnson to drop his plans of awarding the cartoonist with a Presidential Medal of Freedom. The cartoonist would eventually be awarded this honor by Bill Clinton in 1994.

Some of Herblock’s finest cartoons were those attacking the Nixon Administration during the Watergate Scandal, winning him his third Pulitzer Prize in 1979. Nixon canceled his subscription to the Post after Herblock drew him crawling out of an open sewer in 1954. He had once used the same motif for Senator McCarthy.[1] He also ended up on the president’s infamous enemies list. In the 1980s and 1990s, he satirized and criticized Presidents Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Clinton in addition to taking on the issues of the day: Gun control; abortion; the influence of fundamentalist Christian groups on public policy; and the Dot Com bubble. The tobacco industry was a favorite target of Herblock, who had smoked at one time. He gave it up and had criticized cigarette companies even before that.

The strong stance for upright politics that Herblock always showed would have been sadly out of place in the present day Washington Post that he honored with his presence in its better days.

While cartoons may not technically be considered fine art, the use of humor that Herblock brought to bear on the political scene was fine and we have a better world for it.

Herblock cartoon August 8, 1939: “The Man Who Was Hollering ‘Take Him Out’”

Saturday Art: Bill Mauldin, ‘Willie and Joe’ and beyond

1:45 am in Art by Ruth Calvo


“Me future is settled, Willie. I’m gonna be a perfessor on types o’ European soil.”

(Picture courtesy of public domain at wikimedia.)

Bill Mauldin came to fame in WWII drawing cartoons showing the human dimension of the war in characters he named Willie and Joe. He was himself a soldier, and was able to bring a sympathetic character to readers at home, and some relief to the troops around him.

While in the 45th Infantry Division, Mauldin volunteered to work for the unit’s newspaper, drawing cartoons about regular soldiers or “dogfaces“. Eventually he created two cartoon infantrymen: Willie, who was modeled after his comrade and friend Irving Richtel, and Joe, who became synonymous with the average American GI.

During July 1943, Mauldin’s cartoon work continued when, as a sergeant of the 45th Division’s press corps, he landed with the division in the invasion of Sicily and later in the Italian campaign.[1] Mauldin began working for Stars and Stripes, the American soldiers’ newspaper; as well as the 45th Division News, until he was officially transferred to the Stars and Stripes in February 1944.[1] By March 1944, he was given his own jeep, in which he roamed the front, collecting material and producing six cartoons a week.[2] His cartoons were viewed by soldiers throughout Europe during World War II, and were also published in the United States. The War Office supported their syndication,[3] not only because they helped publicize the ground forces but also to show the grim and bitter side of war, which helped show that victory would not be easy.[4] Willie was on the cover of Time Magazine in the June 18, 1945 issue, and Mauldin himself made the cover in the July 21, 1961 issue. While in Europe, Mauldin befriended a fellow soldier-cartoonist, Gregor Duncan, and was assigned to escort him for a time. (Duncan was killed at Anzio in May 1944.)[5]

Those officers who had served in the army before the war were generally offended by Mauldin, who parodied the spit-shine and obedience-to-order-without-question view that was more easily maintained during that time of peace. General George Patton summoned Mauldin to his office and threatened to “throw his ass in jail” for “spreading dissent” after one of Mauldin’s cartoons made fun of Patton’s demand that all soldiers must be clean-shaven at all times, even in combat. But Dwight Eisenhower, Supreme Commander European Theater, told Patton to leave Mauldin alone, because he felt that Mauldin’s cartoons gave the soldiers an outlet for their frustrations. Mauldin told an interviewer later, “I always admired Patton. Oh, sure, the stupid bastard was crazy. He was insane. He thought he was living in the Dark Ages. Soldiers were peasants to him. I didn’t like that attitude, but I certainly respected his theories and the techniques he used to get his men out of their foxholes.”[6]

Mauldin’s cartoons made him a hero to the common soldier. GIs often credited him with helping them to get through the rigors of the war. His credibility with the common soldier increased in September 1943, when he was wounded in the shoulder by a German mortar while visiting a machine gun crew near Monte Cassino.[1] By the end of the war he also received the Army’sLegion of Merit for his cartoons. Mauldin wanted Willie and Joe to be killed on the last day of combat, but Stars and Stripes dissuaded him.[2]


In 1998, Mauldin drew “Willie and Joe” for publication one last time, as part of a Veterans Day strip for the popular comic, Peanuts. The creator of Peanuts and a World War II veteran himself, Charles M. Schulz, had long described Mauldin as his hero. He signed the strip Schulz, and my Hero, and then had Mauldin sign his name underneath.[12]

His cartooning after the war turned to civil liberties and put off his editors. He never succeeded in equaling the following and fame he had during the war. Buried in Arlington Cemetery, Mauldin joined his Willie and Joe in the end.

(Picture courtesy of Mike Fisher at

Homage to Mauldin at Shidoni sculpture foundry near Santa Fe. It is a representation of an editorial cartoon Bill Mauldin published in the military publication “Stars and Stripes” during World War II.


Saturday Art: Delacroix’s “Liberty Leading the People”, a.k.a. To the Ramparts

3:36 am in Art by Ruth Calvo


Liberty Leading the People
by Eugene Delacroix

(Picture courtesy of the public commons, at wikipedia.)

One of the representations of the revolution in France has a portrayal of symbolized Liberty, taking her warrior people ‘to the ramparts‘, and represents a cry that often rang out as the French took their country back from despots.

Delacroix depicted Liberty as both an allegorical goddess-figure and a robust woman of the people. The mound of corpses acts as a kind of pedestal from which Liberty strides, barefoot and bare-breasted, out of the canvas and into the space of the viewer. The Phrygian cap she wears had come to symbolize liberty during the first French Revolution, of 1789–94. The painting has been seen as a marker to the end of the Age of Enlightenment, as many scholars see the end of the French Revolution as the start of the romantic era.[2]

The fighters are from a mixture of social classes, ranging from the bourgeoisie represented by the young man in a top hat, a student from the prestigious École Polytechnique wearing the traditional bicorne, to the revolutionary urban worker, as exemplified by the boy holding pistols. What they have in common is the fierceness and determination in their eyes. Aside from the flag held by Liberty, a second, minute tricolore can be discerned in the distance flying from the towers of Notre Dame.[citation needed]

The identity of the man in the top hat has been widely debated. The suggestion that it was a self-portrait by Delacroix has been discounted by modern art historians.[3] In the late 19th century, it was suggested the model was the theatre director Étienne Arago; others have suggested the future curator of the LouvreFrédéric Villot;[4] but there is no firm consensus on this point.


Although Delacroix was not the first artist to depict Liberty in Phrygian cap, his painting may be the best known early version of the figure commonly known asMarianne, a symbol of the French Republic and of France in general.[14]

The painting inspired Bartholdi‘s Statue of Liberty in New York City,[15] which was given to the United States as a gift from the French a half-century afterLiberty Leading the People was painted. The statue, which holds a torch in its hand, takes a more stable, immovable stance than that of the woman in the painting. An engraved version of part of the painting, along with a depiction of Delacroix himself, was featured on the 100-franc note from 1978 to 1995.

Glorious Liberty was the theme that gave France its greatness, and her government remains still responsive to the popular voice.  The Star Spangled Banner has the words “o’er the ramparts we watched’, a reflection of the street battling that the French Revolution particularly exhibited.

Saturday Art: Georgia O’Keeffe Museum exhibiting Hawai’i period

4:00 am in Art by Ruth Calvo

Georgia O’Keeffe


(Picture courtesy of Ron Cogswell at

Series 1, No. 8
Georgia O’Keeffe

(Picture courtesy of Prosfilaes at wikipedia artistic commons.)

The paintings above are not part of the present exhibit at the O’Keeffe museum in Santa Fe, New Mexico, but are ones we often see associated with her.   From February through September 17, the museum is showing Hawai’i paintings and photos by the two friends, O’Keeffe and Ansel Adams.

We know Georgia O’Keeffe for her intriguing work painting flowers, desert landscapes, and other subjects but her period in lush Hawai’i accompanied by Ansel Adams is seldom brought up.    The two of them visited many parts of the exotic islands, and painted that lush scenery with apparent wholehearted appreciation.

This exhibition is the first to feature the artwork created in Hawai’i by Georgia O’Keeffe and Ansel Adams. These two friends and American modernists are famously associated with the extraordinary places that inspired them; though both visited Hawai’i at the height of their powers, the work they created there has received little attention. Georgia O’Keeffe and Ansel Adams: The Hawai’i Pictures reveals how profoundly both artists were moved by their personal experiences in Hawai’i. Further, the photographs and paintings included in the exhibition express the islands’ unique sense of place, at the same time they reveal the complex continuities with the whole of O’Keeffe and Adams’s respective oeuvres.

The exhibition will include fourteen paintings by O’Keeffe created during a 1939 trip to Honolulu and neighbor islands to create illustrations for print advertisements for the Hawaiian Pineapple Company (now the Dole Company). During her two month stay in Hawai’i, she traversed Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawai’i (The Big Island), visiting beaches, rainforests, and pineapple plantations, and painting the dramatic coastlines, volcanic terrain, traditional tools, and exotic flora. She painted dramatic landscapes of coastlines and waterfalls; but most extensively the island flowers: white bird of paradise, heliconia, crab’s claw ginger, and bella donna. These artworks reveal O’Keeffe’s deeply personal response to the inescapable natural beauty of the islands. The tropical blossoms will resonant with viewers who admire her large-scale flower paintings, but the seascapes and verdant valleys are an unusual subject for the artist better known for her desert landscapes. Yet, these disciplined compositions express her enduring fascination with the formal vocabulary of abstraction.

The exhibition will also include Ansel Adams’s photographs of Hawai’i, likewise undertaken on commission, first in 1948 as part of a series on national parks for the Department of the Interior and in 1957 for a commemorative publication for Bishop National Bank of Hawai’i (now First Hawaiian Bank). These extraordinary and often idiosyncratic works reveal how Adams, like O’Keeffe, sought a personal experience, beyond the prevailing stereotypes of Hawai’i, to picture his individual response to the island’s natural beauty. Building upon the exhibition Georgia O’Keeffe and Ansel Adams: Natural Affinities, on view at the Georgia O’Keeffe Museum in 2008, this body of work reveals how Adams and O’Keeffe sought to unmask what lay beyond the beaches of Waikiki, to convey their profound and intimate connection to the land.

I’ve always liked the quality of enjoyment in O’Keeffe’s art, the lush profusion of color and flesh.   Of course, we’ve all heard at some time that her flowers are vagina, the sexual nature of her work is meant to draw viewers into carnal senses, well, okay, that’s all right.   There’s so much more, we don’t need to go on.   If it makes you like it better, sexuality will do.


As I will be at a farm where there’s no phone or internet service, sorry but will not be able to comment back at you on this post.

(Picture courtesy of Nina Haghighi at

Cow Skull, Georgia O’Keeffe

Saturday Art: Manet’s Dejeuner Sur l’Herbe

3:04 am in Art by Ruth Calvo


Dejeuner sur l’Herbe
Édouard Manet

(Picture courtesy of Courtauld Institute of Art, public domain wikipedia.)

The painting has probably been presented to you in many ways, but to me it is summer and living easy, as well as being an epochal work of art that blew the collective mind of the art world of its time.  Dejeuner Sur l’Herbe will always stand out as comment and execution of the world Édouard Manet envisioned idyllically.

 In 1863, Manet shocked the French public by exhibiting his Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (“Luncheon on the Grass”). It is not a realist painting in the social or political sense of Daumier, but it is a statement in favor of the artist’s individual freedom. The shock value of a nude woman casually lunching with two fully dressed men, which was an affront to the propriety of the time, was accentuated by the familiarity of the figures. Manet’s wife, Suzanne Leenhoff, and his favorite modelVictorine Meurent, both posed for the nude woman, who has Meurent’s face, but Leenhoff’s plumper body.[citation needed] Her body is starkly lit and she stares directly at the viewer. The two men are Manet’s brother Gustave Manet and his future brother-in-law, Ferdinand Leenhoff.[3] They are dressed like young dandies. The men seem to be engaged in conversation, ignoring the woman. In front of them, the woman’s clothes, a basket of fruit, and a round loaf of bread are displayed, as in a still life. In the background a lightly clad woman bathes in a stream. Too large in comparison with the figures in the foreground, she seems to float above them. The roughly painted background lacks depth – giving the viewer the impression that the scene is not taking place outdoors, but in a studio. This impression is reinforced by the use of broad “photographic” light, which casts almost no shadows; the lighting of the scene, in fact, is inconsistent and unnatural. The man on the right wears a flat hat with a tassel, of a kind normally worn indoors.

Despite the mundane subject, Manet deliberately chose a large canvas size, normally reserved for historical subjects. The style of the painting breaks with the academic traditions of the time. He did not try to hide the brush strokes; the painting, indeed, looks unfinished in some parts of the scene. The nude is a far cry from the smooth, flawless figures of Cabanel or Ingres.

We hardly can help feeling the glee the artist had to feel in his concept, and execution, of the contentment in nudity that is always going to make the watcher uncomfortable. His posed subjects show and elegance and appeal that tells the viewer they are in a better state than our own, and make us want to enter it as well.

According to Emile Zola: “The Luncheon on the Grass is the greatest work of Édouard Manet, one in which he realizes the dream of all painters: to place figures of natural grandeur in a landscape. We know the power with which he vanquished this difficulty.” Zola wrote a novel, l’Oeuvre, about the painting and its impact.

There were artistic variations on the original painting, one by Paul Cezanne that is intriguing, and supportive of Manet who was much critiqued for the painting. Cezanne’s work is in the Musee de l’Orangerie in Paris.

Paul Cezanne,
Le Dejeuner sur l’Herbe

(Picture courtesy of artistic commons in wikipedia.)