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Pennsylvania’s Unremarkable Private-Sector Job Performance

1:28 pm in Uncategorized by ThirdandState

By Stephen Herzenberg, Third and State

Philadelphia Daily News Columnist John Baer is right to suggest that Governor Corbett’s jobs performance since January 2011 is less than “remarkable.”

Baer’s critique comes in response to the Governor’s first re-election campaign ad touting “a remarkable 116,000 new private-sector jobs” since he came into office in January 2011. Not so fast, Baer writes:

When one looks at net jobs here since January 2011, the picture is less than “remarkable.” The current net jobs gain is not 116,000. It’s 75,100.  Among the 10 largest states, of which we’re sixth, we gained the fewest jobs. … data on the four states with less population (Ohio, Georgia, Michigan and North Carolina) show each gained double the number of jobs we did, or more.

Governor Corbett gets to 116,000 by limiting his count to private-sector jobs only, not the tens of thousands of teachers, police officers and other public servants who lost their jobs following years of state and local budget cuts.

Even if you restrict your analysis to the private sector, Pennsylvania’s private-sector job growth has almost stalled since about a year into the Governor’s term. To see that, take a look at the chart below.

The chart shows cumulative private-sector job growth in Pennsylvania since January 2011, the month Baer uses as his point of reference. We rely on data from a survey of employers by the Bureau of Labor Statistics known as the “establishment” survey. There is another employment survey of households done monthly by the U.S. Census Bureau, and over short periods of time, the two can differ — but as Mark Price has explained, both surveys typically tell the same story about the health of the labor market over the long haul.

Looking at data from the establishment survey, Pennsylvania’s private-sector job growth was relatively robust in 2011, yielding a total of 100,000 net new private jobs by March 2012. In the 14 months since then, however, the state has seen private jobs growth of less than 5,000; private job growth is less than 20,000 even if you use a three-month moving average for the same period.

Another way to gauge how “unremarkable” the state’s private job performance has been is to compare it to the national level. We do this by first computing percent job growth for the U.S. since January 2011 and then computing what private job growth in Pennsylvania would have been if the state’s percent job growth had kept pace with the national average. The gap between what Pennsylvania’s job growth would have been if it matched the national rate and actual Pennsylvania job growth is labeled “Pennsylvania’s growing private job gap” in the next chart.

What explains Pennsylvania’s private-sector job growth trends since early 2011 relative to the nation?

One hypothesis for Pennsylvania’s strong showing in 2011 is that the robust job growth that year partly reflected the policies of outgoing Governor Ed Rendell. A related hypothesis is that the policies of Governor Corbett, most prominently the impact of budget cuts and public-sector layoffs, took a year or so to have an impact on the private-sector economy.

Yet another factor could be the natural gas industry. Although the impact of drilling on Pennsylvania jobs has been exaggerated, it did have some impact. Since 2011, however, drilling and natural gas employment have ebbed. The flat-lining of private-sector job growth in Pennsylvania since the first quarter of 2012 makes abundantly clear that the natural gas industry alone never amounted to an adequate jobs strategy for the state.

A final factor is slow population growth in Pennsylvania. From April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011, population growth in Pennsylvania was 0.5% compared to 1.7% nationally. When the economy is at full employment, the growth of the working-age population has more impact than any other factor on job growth — as a result, job growth in states with slowly-growing populations should not be expected to keep pace with that of the nation. However, when unemployment rates are well above full employment, as at present, then state job growth rates are more likely to cluster close to the national average and less likely to be impacted primarily by relative rates of long-term population growth.

State Tax Cuts Take a Bite Out of Pennsylvania’s Budget Pie

9:36 am in Uncategorized by ThirdandState

By Chris Lilienthal, Third and State

Advocates delivered half a pie to every Pennsylvania legislator Tuesday. Why half a pie?

To remind them that a decade of large tax cuts for businesses has left schools, health care services, and local communities with a smaller share of the state budget pie.

Tax cuts enacted since 1999 have drained close to $3 billion this year alone from state coffers. The cost of the tax cuts has more than tripled since 2002, with little to show for it. Too often, these tax cuts are put in place with very little accountability or obligation for companies to create jobs. In fact, Pennsylvania ranked 27th in job growth in 1999-2000 but fell to 34th in 2011-12.

Budget cuts fueled by large business tax cuts also pass the buck to school districts and local governments – and onto local taxpayers.

Governor Corbett is now proposing a new round of tax cuts for 2015 and beyond that will cost as much as an additional $1 billion. The proposal includes no plan to close tax loopholes that allow companies to hide profits and avoid paying their share of taxes.

Pennsylvania needs a budget that returns to tried-and-true investments in education and the public infrastructure that promotes long-term economic growth. After a long economic downturn, that is the path to more jobs, stronger communities, and a brighter future for our children.

We can fund corporate tax cuts or we can fund our children’s schools, but increasingly we can’t do both. Giving larger slices of the pie to profitable corporations means less money in the classroom, fewer early childhood programs, and less support for local services.

Pennsylvania needs real tax reform that levels the playing field for businesses that play by the rules, and stops giving away dollars that are essential to helping our children and families succeed. Only then will we be able to invest in a world-class public education and the community assets that build a stronger economy.

Photo by Mr. T in DC released under Creative Commons License

In the Bid to Privatize PA’s Lottery, One Is the Loneliest Number

2:23 pm in Uncategorized by ThirdandState

By Stephen Herzenberg, Third and State

Three Dog Night: One

One is the loneliest number that you’ll ever do …

Although I’m dating myself, some of you may recognize the Harry Nilsson song made famous by Three Dog Night. We recommend that Governor Tom Corbett download it to his iPod as he contemplates whether to accept a solitary bid from Camelot Global Services to take over the operation of the Pennsylvania Lottery. Whether privatizing state services or getting a new roof for your house, having a single lonely bidder is a red flag for a fleecing — for overpaying the contractor.

In its bid, Camelot promises 20 to 30 years of lottery profits that barely increase at the rate of inflation — even with the addition of new lottery games such as Keno and online gaming. The deal could produce big-time profits for Camelot with performance no better than the public system could produce. If the company maxes out its incentive-based compensation over the initial 20-year contract, it could receive $1.15 billion in today’s dollars; more when you count annual management fees.

A good deal for Camelot, but not for the Pennsylvania seniors who benefit from lottery proceeds, as the Keystone Research Center finds in a new report. The impact on seniors is critical since the lottery generates $1 billion a year for services that benefit area senior centers, low-cost prescription drugs, transportation for seniors, and property tax and rent rebates.

Experience from other states offers little to recommend this deal. Illinois is the only state to privatize its lottery, and it is now embroiled in litigation about how much the contractor owes the state because of poor performance. Indiana just privatized its lottery, so there’s no information yet on the results. Both states received more than one bid from private companies.

Pennsylvania’s move toward privatization is especially puzzling given the lottery’s good track record and record profits in the last two years. A recent Pennsylvania Treasury analysis found that administrative costs in the Pennsylvania Lottery were the second lowest, as a share of lottery system sales, of the 10 largest lotteries in the United States.

The Keystone report also raises questions about financial ties between Camelot and Greenhill & Co., the private consultant retained by the Corbett administration to manage the bidding process. Greenhill worked on the $576 million sale of Camelot to its current owner, and would receive millions if the privatization deal goes through. 

When you add up all the questions about this deal — starting but not ending with the lack of multiple bidders, the lack of transparency, the low revenue commitments, and an apparent conflict of interest that could motivate Greenhill to push for privatization — it seems like a game of tee-ball for seven-year olds: as in, “eight strikes and you’re out.”

Based on all the questions raised by Keystone and others, at the very minimum the Corbett administration should slow down and undertake in partnership with the Legislature a transparent and comprehensive review of lottery privatization before locking the commonwealth into a bad deal for a generation.

 

Fact Checking PA Governor Corbett’s Jobs Record…and Some Unsolicited Advice

2:07 pm in Uncategorized by ThirdandState

By Stephen Herzenberg, Third and State

Governor Tom Corbett’s administration has a new summary of Pennsylvania’s recent job performance. Today’s news that Pennsylvania’s unemployment rate is as high as the national unemployment rate underscores, however, that the state’s recent jobs record is not  good. Let’s take a closer look.

PA vs. U.S.: The Corbett jobs summary notes that Pennsylvania’s unemployment rate is below the national rate — and it was when the summary was first released. This was not a new trend: the Pennsylvania rate was a point or a point-and-a-half below the national rate for most of the four years before Governor Corbett took office. A year ago, the gap between the Pennsylvania and U.S. unemployment rate was still statistically significant. (See Table A.) But the gap between the two rates — the “Pennsylvania advantage” — has been shrinking steadily since 2010 until the Pennsylvania rate finally climbed to the U.S. level in August 2012, both equaling 8.1%.

Private-sector Job Growth: While the administration touts private-sector job growth in 2011, the numbers reflect a national trend, rather than a unique Pennsylvania story.

The U.S. economy has had 30 consecutive months of private-sector job growth. In fact, Pennsylvania’s rank for the percent growth in private-sector job growth has fallen from 8th in 2010 to 36th in the 12 months ending in July 2012. One of the reasons that Pennsylvania’s private-sector job-growth ranking is down is the deeper cuts in public employment in Pennsylvania compared to other states. Deep cuts to Pennsylvania public schools and colleges led to a loss of 14,000 education jobs alone in 2011.

These layoffs impact the classroom and Main Street too. Unemployed teachers, like unemployed factory workers, don’t have money to spend, which affects the broader economy.

Manufacturing Job Growth: Manufacturing jobs growth improved in 2011, but again reflects national trends. In fact, Pennsylvania’s manufacturing job growth since early 2010 is slightly below half the national increase. (See The State of Working Pennsylvania 2012.)

New Hires in Marcellus Shale: Not this one again. The administration is touting natural gas industry growth by citing the number of new hires. As we’ve explained repeatedly, new hires are not new jobs (most new hires replace people who quit or are fired). In fact, the number of new hires is basically a meaningless number. Statewide there were 580,400 new hires during the 2nd quarter in Pennsylvania, while total non-farm employment rose between the 1st and 2nd quarter by less than 300 jobs. In other words, the only reason to cite new hires is to make the job gain seem substantially larger than it really is.

The gas industry has led to some job growth in Pennsylvania, just not on the scale claimed by the industry. Between the 4th quarter of 2008 and the 4th quarter of 2011, employment in the core Marcellus Shale industries grew by 18,000. That gain was largely wiped out by the loss of 14,000 education jobs in just one year. Even using the most generous estimates, employment in the Marcellus Shale in direct and ancillary industries in the 4th quarter of 2011 (as published by the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and industry) was 238,400 – about 4.2% of total state employment.

Here’s the unsolicited advice: Twenty months into Governor Corbett’s first term, there is still time for the Governor to pursue policies that will improve Pennsylvania’s job performance. There are multiple options that have strong bipartisan and business support. For example, investing in transportation infrastructure as recommended by the Governor’s own transportation commission.

In manufacturing and workforce development, the administration is also saying some of the right things. But talk is cheap: we need actual investment in skills and innovation if our job performance is going to improve relative to other states and the nation.

Piecing Together the PA Budget Framework

2:26 pm in Uncategorized by ThirdandState

(photo: Dbenbenn / wikimedia)

By Chris Lilienthal, Third and State

Some details emerged Thursday about the state budget framework unveiled midweek by Governor Tom Corbett and legislative leaders, but questions still remain. More details may be available later today when budget spreadsheets are released.

Funding for county human services is one area that appears to be in flux, as some House Republicans continue to voice concerns about a plan to block grant and cut that funding.

A number of GOP House lawmakers want to add more dollars for the mental health and mental disability programs in that mix, said [Rep. Mario] Scavello.

A Senate-approved bill restores half of the $168 million spending cut for the human services programs initially proposed by Mr. Corbett. House members would like to restore even more money but have to balance that with cuts elsewhere, he added.

Although the statewide association representing county commissioners recently agreed to a two-year phase-in for the block grant, Rep. Gene DiGirolamo, R-18, Bensalem, chairman of the House Human Services Committee, said he’s trying to stop the block grant altogether and substitute a pilot program for several counties instead …

The seven programs considered for a block grant include community mental health and mental disability services, the human services development fund, homeless assistance, child welfare grants, the Behavorial Health Services Initiative and Act 152 drug and alcohol treatment programs.

While there is some hope for restoring more funds to county human services, one area that appeared not to make the cut is the state’s General Assistance Program. The governor proposed — and legislative leaders appear to have agreed to — eliminating this modest benefit for temporarily disabled adults, which will have a devastating on nearly 70,000 Pennsylvanians striving to avoid homelessness and build a better life for themselves.

One item unlikely to survive, despite protests from church groups and advocates for the poor, is the so-called general assistance program that provides cash benefits to nearly 70,000 temporarily disabled adults. Corbett proposed eliminating the funding, and legislative leaders did not seek to restore it.

Brenda Freeman of West Philadelphia, who has peripheral edema, which swells tissues in her arms and legs, said that program had been “my only income.” Freeman, 38, whose condition makes it very difficult to stand or sit for long periods and who telephoned The Inquirer to protest the cut, said: “What am I going to have to do — eat out of a trash can?”

“There still is a chance to do something,” she said. “I’m hoping that they do the right thing.”

Pennsylvania’s public schools and universities are likely to see no change in their funding, after sustaining deep cuts in the budget enacted last year.

On Thursday afternoon, the House Appropriations Committee approved funding bills for the four state-related universities as well as the Veterinary School at the University of Pennsylvania.

Though he stopped short of confirming that the schools — Penn State, Temple and Lincoln universities and the University of Pittsburgh — would be flat-funded at current levels, “we are working toward that idea,” said Drew Crompton, the chief of staff to Senate President Pro Tempore Joe Scarnati, R-Jefferson.

The four schools were targeted for 30 percent cuts in Corbett’s $27.14 billion budget proposal unveiled in February. An amended version of the budget approved by the Senate this spring would fund at current levels: Penn State at $227 million; Temple at $139 million; Lincoln at $11 million and the University of Pittsburgh at $136 million.

Crompton said budget negotiators are moving in a similar direction with the state system schools … The schools would be maintained at their current level of $412 million.

Finally, multiple newspapers are reporting that Accountability Block Grants, which support full-day kindergarten and other early childhood programs, will be restored to $100 million after the governor proposed eliminating them. More funding will likely be approved for distressed schools and to expand the state Educational Improvement Tax Credit Program, which allows businesses to donate to private school scholarships and recover most, if not all, of their contribution through tax benefits.

Rep. Mike Vereb, R-Montgomery, said negotiators told him the tentative agreement includes $25 million to expand the current Educational Improvement Tax Credit program, which is currently funded at $75 million. An additional $50 million would be available to students who attend a school among the state’s lowest-achieving 15 percent.

The Myths Behind Governor Corbett’s PA Budget Myths

7:48 am in Uncategorized by ThirdandState

By Sharon Ward, Third and State

Governor Tom Corbett’s May 21 newsletter offered up responses to five “myths” the administration claims are circulating about his proposed budget for next year. The Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center examined these myths and the myths behind the myths to give you a clear picture about what is fact and what is fiction in Harrisburg.

Governor’s Myth #1: Pennsylvania spends more money building prisons than building schools.

We’re not sure where this one came from, but we will give it a whirl.

Fact: The Corbett administration’s budget includes a moratorium on new school construction projections, and NO FUNDING for school district projects in the pipeline.

Fact: If the Governor’s proposed plan for higher education is adopted, Pennsylvania will spend twice as much on prisons as it does on colleges. In 2009-10, the state’s corrections budget was $1.8 billion and college funding was $1.5 billion. If the Governor had his way, Pennsylvania would spend $1.9 billion on corrections and $980 million on colleges in 2012-13.

Fact: It costs the state much more to house prisoners than it does to educate a child. In 2011-12, Pennsylvania will house 49,000 inmates at a cost of $35,188 per inmate and spend $9.3 billion to educate 1.8 million students at a cost in state dollars of $5,305 per child.

Fact: It is better to build schools than to build prisons.

Governor’s Myth #2: The reductions in higher education funding will cause universities to raise tuition.

Well, cutting college funding is certainly not going to help keep tuition down.

Fact: Public subsidies keep college tuition more affordable. In 2009-10, the average cost (nationally) of a public four-year college education was $15,014, while the average cost of a four-year private college was more than double at $32,790.

Fact: From 1999 to 2011, Pennsylvania’s state funding for higher education fell by 12%.

Fact: The Governor and General Assembly cut public colleges by 20% last year, and the Governor proposed to cut 30% more this year.

Fact: Pennsylvania ranked 46th in public college funding as a share of personal income in 2011-12.

Fact: Our economy can’t grow if our children don’t have a college education.

Governor’s Myth #3: The proposed budget reduces funding for K-12 education and will force school districts to raise property taxes.

That’s no myth, that’s a fact.

Fact: The budget proposed by Governor Corbett and enacted by the General Assembly in June 2011 gave school districts $860 million less than they received the previous year. That included a reduction of 7%, or $421 million, in the basic education subsidy.

Fact: The Governor’s cuts killed jobs. School districts cut programs, raised taxes and eliminated positions. In 2011, the state lost 14,000 jobs in public schools and universities.

Governor’s Myth #4: The elimination of cash assistance will mainly hurt children and victims of domestic violence.

Fact: In February, the Governor proposed eliminating the General Assistance program. The Governor is right: most of those affected are people with a permanent disability waiting for approval for Social Security disability benefits, or those who have an addiction and are eligible to receive the $200 monthly grant for seven months, in their lifetime.

Fact: Women and children lost their health care, not cash assistance, when the Department of Public Welfare did a quick and dirty eligibility review and threw 88,000 kids out of state health insurance programs. Moms, seniors and people with disabilities (the only ones who can get health care coverage through Medical Assistance) lost their coverage too.

Fact: The budget cuts vulnerable adults as well as children. Do you feel better now?

Governor’s Myth #5: The proposed budget reduces funding for the arts.

Fact: The Governor has level-funded grants for the arts for two years. What has gone by the wayside is arts and music education that have been slashed by school districts as a result of the cuts to education (see Myth #2).

Pennsylvania Hunger Games Diet: Cash for Corporations, Cuts for Kids

2:21 pm in Uncategorized by ThirdandState

By Mark Price, Third and State

On Tuesday Marty Moss-Coane, the host of WHYY’s Radio Times, moderated a question-and-answer session with Governor Tom Corbett at an event sponsored by the Greater Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce. The Governor ran wild with analogies.

Corbett repeated a folksy analogy to the business suit-and-tie audience, saying that state revenue amounted to an eight-inch pizza pie before the 2008 financial crisis. Now, he said, it’s a six-inch pie “but with the same mouths to feed.”

Moss-Coane noted near the end of the hour-long conversation that Corbett could hear demonstrators beating drums and chanting slogans outside. What would he say to them, she asked.

“I understand that you’re upset because we’ve had to put the state on a diet, for want of a better description,” Corbett said. “I haven’t met anybody who likes to go on diets. It is not easy. It is not what we want to do.”

Of course, if you really wanted to grow the pie, you could start by closing corporate tax loopholes and not creating new ones.

While the Corbett diet is high in corporate tax breaks, it is low in investments in human capital. Take, for example, the Harrisburg School District, which thanks in part to state budget cuts is considering eliminating kindergarten.

Duane O’Neal-Sloane longingly watches his older siblings pack their school lunches, wishing he was doing the same and heading off to school each morning.

After perfectly reciting his ABCs, O’Neal-Sloane said next year he even will be able to write, take gym class and eat in the lunch room at Camp Curtin School.

But with the Harrisburg School District facing a $15.8 million budget deficit next year, Duane’s hopes of attending kindergarten at Camp Curtin next fall could be dashed.

To help close next year’s budget gap, school officials are looking to cut Harrisburg’s kindergarten program and other programs the district is not lawfully required to provide…

Harrisburg isn’t the only Pennsylvania school district looking to drop kindergarten due to looming deficits, said Wythe Keever, spokesman for the Pennsylvania State Education Association, which represents teacher unions across much of the state.

York City School District and the Woodland Hills School District in Allegheny County are at least two others considering the same thing, Keever said.

Nowhere to Go, More Addicts on the Street and a Ringing Irony

7:31 am in Uncategorized by ThirdandState

Unsettling & Uncertain Future (photo: aphrodite/flickr)

Unsettling & Uncertain Future (photo: aphrodite/flickr)

Based on blog posts by Chris Lilienthal originally published here and here at Third and State.

The Philadelphia Inquirer reports this morning on the impact of Pennsylvania Governor Tom Corbett’s proposed budget cuts on the lives of people in Southeastern Pennsylvania. Who is getting hit? Adults with disabilities, the homeless, people with mental-health illnesses, HIV patients needing hospice care, children aging out of foster care, and seniors, among others.

Miriam Hill, The Philadelphia InquirerPeople who will be affected by Corbett’s cuts:

Brittany Stevens doesn’t talk a lot, but she’s a bit of a social butterfly. She was a prom queen and, after a recent performance of the musical Fela!, she spontaneously hugged the dancers, nearly tackling them in excitement.

But Brittany, 21, who is disabled and suffers from seizures, incontinence, hearing loss, and other problems, spends most of her days alone in her North Philadelphia home, while her mother, Harlena Morton, goes to work as a high-school counselor.

Morton had hoped to find Brittany a job in a workshop that employs disabled adults. Now that Gov. Corbett has proposed large cuts to social services programs, Morton fears that Brittany and thousands like her will never get off waiting lists for those spots and for other services…

In Philadelphia, the cuts total about $120 million, not including reductions in medical care, city officials say; across Pennsylvania, $317 million, according to state officials.

The Governor’s 2012-13 budget proposes to completely eliminate the General Assistance Program, which provides a time-limited, modest $205 per month benefit to people who are sick or disabled, completing addiction recovery programs or children who would otherwise be in foster care. Again, from the Inquirer: Read the rest of this entry →

PA Must Reads: The Governor’s Math Requires Fewer Math Teachers

7:58 am in Uncategorized by ThirdandState

PA Job Growth Slowed in 2011A blog post by Mark Price, originally published at Third and State.

Pennsylvania’s 2011-12 General Fund budget made deep cuts to education and health care while leaving unspent $620 million from a revenue surplus last year and other unused funds.

We have estimated the failure to spend that revenue will by itself translate into the loss of 17,714 jobs (including private jobs lost due to the ripple effects of public job cuts) over the course of the 2011-12 fiscal year.

So it is no surprise that Pennsylvania’s job growth slowed in 2011 compared to 2010 and when compared to most other states.

On Wednesday, Governor Tom Corbett resumed his business tour to pitch his 2012-13 budget, which offers another round of budget cuts for the coming fiscal year.

A Caernarvon Township vinyl window manufacturer is a perfect example of a business that managed to survive the recession by living within its means, Gov. Tom Corbett said Wednesday after a tour of the facility…

The governor said the state has only two options for balancing its budget: raising taxes or cutting expenses…

“That’s why I’m trying to control the costs,” he said. “It’s not easy. I don’t want to make these tough decisions, but you elected me to make tough decisions. We expect everyone to live within their means. You had to do it here.”

Late Wednesday, officials in the Pocono Mountain and Stroudsburg School District discussed the implications of the Governor’s “tough decisions” aimed at controlling costs, which include laying off more math teachers. Read the rest of this entry →

PA Must Reads: Soup Kitchens & Self Sufficiency Programs Under Pressure & Marcellus Public Health Issues

10:11 am in Uncategorized by ThirdandState

A blog post by Mark Price, originally published at Third and State.

The Erie Times-News reports this morning that Governor Tom Corbett’s decision to implement an asset test for food assistance in Pennsylvania is expected to drive more people to seek help in already overburdened soup kitchens.

In other news this morning, it has fallen to charitable foundations to fund programs to help identify the public health impacts of Marcellus Shale development.

When Sister Mary Miller took over Emmaus Ministries in 1980, she dreamed of one day being able to close the agency’s soup kitchen, hoping the need would no longer be there.

In 1980, the kitchen served about 100 people a day.

Today, the facility … serves close to 200 people daily, feeding a city racked by a skyrocketing poverty crisis.

The soup kitchen’s numbers are likely to rise even more in the coming months, Miller believes, when major changes in the state’s food-stamp program will eliminate some area residents from those eligible to receive the government benefits.

On May 1, the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare will reinstate asset testing for people seeking to qualify for food stamps, known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program…

Critics of the asset test, like Miller, insist the move will hurt thousands of people who are already struggling, penalize those who save money, and burden food pantries, soup kitchens and social-service agencies that are already overwhelmed.

“To think, I once hoped there would be a time where we wouldn’t need the soup kitchen,” the Erie Benedictine nun and director of Emmaus said. “Now, with this, the door of the soup kitchen will only have to become wider.”

Read the rest of this entry →