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Breaking with Tradition in Wisconsin: BadgerCare

12:17 pm in Uncategorized by WI Budget Project

Over the next week, the Wisconsin Budget Project will be highlighting a different piece each day from our larger publication Breaking with Tradition: How Wisconsin Lawmakers Have Shortchanged a Legacy of Investment in the State’s Future. You can access the full report on our website.

BADGERCARE

In the last four years, state lawmakers have made substantial changes to the BadgerCare program, which provides health care coverage to low-income individuals and families. The most dramatic change, which took effect in April 2014, was to cut the income eligibility limit for adults in half, to the federal poverty level (FPL), or $19,790 for a single parent with two children.

The cut in eligibility yields savings that offset part of the cost of extending coverage to at least 100,000 childless adults below the poverty level, many of whom had been on a BadgerCare waiting list. But the cut – which knocked more than 60,000 parents off BadgerCare – could have been avoided if the state had accepted federal funding that would finance the cost of covering newly eligible adults with incomes up to 138% of the federal poverty level ($27,130 for a family of three).

A decline in the number of parents enrolled in BadgerCare and Transitional Medical Assistance (TMA) began earlier, after the 2011-13 budget bill granted the Department of Health Services (DHS) sweeping authority to make cost-cutting changes, even if those changes conflict with state law or administrative rules. In July 2012, DHS used that power to make a number of changes affecting adults, including raising BadgerCare premiums and expanding them to more parents. Although most adults above 100% of FPL lost their BadgerCare eligibility in April 2014, Transitional Medicaid serves a dwindling number (14,753 in June 2014) of parents above that income level.

Despite the sharp drop in enrollment of parents in BadgerCare, the net result of the state policy changes and indirect effects of the federal Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been an increase in total BadgerCare enrollment. And because about a third of the parents who lost BadgerCare coverage were able to purchase subsidized insurance plans through the health insurance Marketplace, there should be a decrease in the number of uninsured Wisconsinites. Nevertheless, the decision to reject the federal funding and only partially expand childless adult coverage has many drawbacks, including:

Accepting the full federal funding and covering adults up to 138% FPL would yield BadgerCare coverage for about 85,000 more adults than the Governor’s plan, yet was projected to save state taxpayers $119 million during the current biennial budget period.

Since Marketplace coverage is significantly more expensive for low-income adults than BadgerCare, the restrictions on eligibility will be a financial hardship for thousands of families, and many of the affected adults are likely to go uninsured; and

Because the enrollment of childless adults has exceeded expectations, the state Department of Health Services projects a much larger shortfall in Medicaid funding, and more than $200 million in cuts to state and federal Medicaid spending will be necessary if lawmakers continue to refuse the federal funds for Medicaid expansion.

DHS tried to use the authority it was granted in the 2011-13 budget bill to make changes that it estimated would cause at least 29,000 children to lose their BadgerCare coverage; however, the Obama Administration rejected those changes because they conflict with “maintenance of effort” provisions of the federal health care law that require states to protect coverage of kids until 2019. Nevertheless, the 2013-15 budget bill codified the BadgerCare changes for kids, enabling those measures to go into effect once the maintenance of effort requirements no longer protect children’s coverage.

Although most of the proposals that would directly affect BadgerCare for children have been delayed by federal law, the changes that are affecting parents seem to be indirectly reducing kid’s coverage.   Over the first six months of 2014, the number of children over the poverty level who are enrolled in BadgerCare has dropped by more than 24,000 – a decrease of 13.6%.

On a more positive note, state lawmakers passed a number of worthwhile measures relating to mental health care during the 2013-14 session. For example, the 2013-15 budget bill appropriated $29 million in new state funds for mental health programs and created an Office of Children’s Mental Health to improve the integration of mental health services provided to children and monitor performance.

You can access the rest of the report here.

As Medicaid Participation Surges Nationally, Wisconsin Experiences Much Slower Growth

11:02 am in Uncategorized by WI Budget Project

National data released last week show that there has been a sharp increase in Medicaid enrollment since last September, and that trend continued in April.  One surprising aspect of the latest HHS data is that the growth in Wisconsin trails that in most other states, even among the states that haven’t expanded Medicaid eligibility.

Nationally, 6 million more people were enrolled in Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) in April, compared to the 3-month period before open enrollment under the Affordable Care Act began last October. That includes growth of 1.1 million additional people in April, as compared to March (in the 48 states that reported data for both months).

The following graph illustrates that the increases have been much higher in the 25 states that have accepted federal funds to expand Medicaid eligibility for adults to 133% of the federal poverty level. The average increase of 10.3% for all 50 states compares with a jump of 15.3% in the expansion states in April (relative to the average enrollment in those states from July through Sept. 2013).

 

In contrast to the other “non-expansion” states, Wisconsin boosted eligibility for childless adults to 100% of the poverty level. Although that partial expansion of eligibility is partially offset by a significantly reduced income cap for parents in BadgerCare, the increase in the number of childless adults enrolled in BadgerCare is already substantially larger than the decline in parent coverage (thanks to much faster than expected growth among childless adults).  That makes it surprising that Wisconsin’s net increase of 1.1% (12,300 people) over the past 7 months was only one-third of the 3.3% average in the other non-expansion states.

I think a careful analysis of the latest Wisconsin data on the DHS website helps explain the smaller increase in Wisconsin. In contrast to the majority of states, where enrollment of kids has increased since September of last year, my analysis of the DHS data reveals that at the end of April there were almost 5,000 fewer children participating in BadgerCare than in September 2013. That’s surprising because the budget bill assumed that the Affordable Care Act would gradually result in an increase of nearly 40,000 already-eligible children being covered in BadgerCare.

Later this month, I’ll take a much closer look at the complicated tends in Wisconsin among already-eligible children and parents.

You can find last week’s report here.

by Jon Peacock

Wisconsin Budget Compounds the Economic Challenges for Low-Wage Workers

11:46 am in Uncategorized by WI Budget Project

The underside of the Wisconsin Capitol Dome

How Wisconsin’s budget cuts hurt workers.

Workers in Wisconsin and across the U.S. must still cope with a relatively weak labor market.  That is especially challenging for low-wage workers who are struggling with the declining value of the minimum wage, reductions in employer benefits like health care, and growing inequality. Those challenges are exacerbated in Wisconsin by budget decisions made by state lawmakers.

A new Wisconsin Budget Project issue brief examines how the how state budget choices are affecting low-wage workers in Wisconsin.  It focuses primarily on the effects of the new budget bill, but also examines a few instances of how that bill continues or compounds the challenges for low-wage workers caused by the 2011-13 budget.

Some of the major effects include the following policy choices relating to health insurance, child care, taxes and unemployment insurance:

Making health insurance and care much more expensive for many parents now in BadgerCare

The 2013-15 budget bill cuts in half the income eligibility ceiling for adults participating in BadgerCare – reducing that cap from 200% of the federal poverty level to just 100%.  That change is expected to cause nearly 90,000 low-income parents and about 5,000 childless adults to lose their BadgerCare coverage, beginning in 2014.  The good news is that Wisconsin is extending coverage to about 80,000 childless adults below the poverty level, but the decision to cap eligibility at that level and turn down enhanced federal funding from the health care reform law means that a single individual with a minimum wage job is ineligible for BadgerCare if he or she is working 30 or more hours per week.

The issue brief analyzes the effect of the budget for a single mother who has two children and an income of $11 per hour (and currently has now BadgerCare premiums and minimal copays).  Beginning in January, when she loses her BadgerCare coverage, she will have to buy insurance through the new Marketplace and will have to pay premiums of about $460 per year and will have significant co-pays and deductibles, which could be as much as $2,250 per year.

Charging premiums for parents in Transitional Medicaid

The state is now seeking a federal waiver that would not only restrict eligibility for BadgerCare, as described above, but would also change another form of Medicaid, known as Transitional Medical Assistance (TMA) by initiating premiums for parents between 100% and 133% of the federal poverty level. If that waiver is approved, parents who climb above the poverty level would struggle to be able to regularly pay the premiums and many are likely to lose their insurance coverage.

Additional cuts in child care subsidies – adversely affecting accessibility and affordability of care

The budget cuts an additional $31 million over the next two years from the Wisconsin Shares child care subsidy program for low-income working families (on top of large cuts in prior years).  Although that cut reflects the estimated cost of maintaining the status quo, it is likely to adversely affect many low-wage workers by causing more child care providers to drop out of the subsidy program and by indirectly increasing co-pays for parents participating in Wisconsin Shares.

Continuing last session’s tax increases for low-income households                                                         

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The Latest Assault on Public Employee Benefits: Prepaying Post-retirement Health Benefits

9:09 am in Uncategorized by WI Budget Project

Legislative Proposals Squeeze Local Governments from Many Directions

For more, go to www.wisconsinbudgetproject.org.

Wisconsin Protests 03-10-2012 024

Wisconsin Protests 03-10-2012 024

In Wisconsin and across the country, most government bodies finance the cost of post-retirement health benefits for their former employees on a pay-as-you-go basis. A number of Republicans in the legislature want to change that and begin requiring local governments, including school districts, to pre-pay those benefits for any public employees hired after 2014.

Evidently, the proponents of the change decided that converting to up-front financing of those benefits is working so well for the U.S. Postal Service that it’s time to do much the same thing for local governments. Okay, that’s probably not their reasoning, and I have to confess that I’m not sure what their primary argument is. However, a good State Journal article by Steven Verburg about the debate over the proposed legislation says that the bill’s proponents contend their intent is to protect workers from being cheated out benefits they have been promised.

Perhaps that’s what some of measure’s backers want to achieve, but the broader fiscal context strongly suggests that the proposed legislation would hurt far more public sector employees than it would help. Local officials would be squeezed from all directions because the new cost would be applied as the state continues to freeze the major sources of aid to municipalities and counties, freezes the revenue cap for schools, and applies a very tight cap on growth in local property tax levies. (Read more about those budget recommendations in our March 26th issue brief.)

I actually think there’s something to be said for pre-paying a significant portion of retirement benefits, which our state does very well for pension benefits for public employees. However, I don’t think the right question to debate is whether local governments should switch to up-front financing. Instead, I think the key question is whether the state should tell local governments how they must finance the employee benefits they provide.

There was a time when the Republican Party considered itself to be the party of small government and local control, but perhaps I’m dating myself when I say that. Proposals like the mandate for prepaying health benefits for retirees make it increasingly difficult to think back to the days when legislators in both parties seemed genuinely committed to local control.

For more, go to www.wisconsinbudgetproject.org.
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